The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States

The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States


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National Women’s History Museum
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National Women’s History Museum

Ida B. Wells-Barnett was a prominent journalist, activist, and researcher, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In her lifetime, she battled sexism, racism, and violence. As a skilled writer, Wells-Barnett also used her skills as a journalist to shed light on the conditions of African Americans throughout the South.

Ida B. Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi on July 16th, 1862. She was born into slavery during the Civil War. Once the war ended Wells-Barnett’s parents became politically active in Reconstruction Era politics. Her parents instilled into her the importance of education. Wells-Barnett enrolled at Rust College but was expelled when she started a dispute with the university president. In 1878, Wells-Barnett went to visit her grandmother. While she was there Wells-Barnett was informed that a yellow fever epidemic had hit her hometown. The disease took both of Wells-Barnett’s parents and her infant brother. Left to raise her brothers and sister, she took a job as a teacher so that she could keep the family together. Eventually, Wells-Barnett moved her siblings to Memphis, Tennessee. There she continued to work as an educator.




In 1884, Wells-Barnett filed a lawsuit against a train car company in Memphis for unfair treatment. She had been thrown off a first-class train, despite having a ticket. Although she won the case on the local level, the ruling was eventually overturned in federal court. After the lynching of one of her friends, Wells-Barnett turned her attention to white mob violence. She became skeptical about the reasons black men were lynched and set out to investigate several cases. She published her findings in a pamphlet and wrote several columns in local newspapers. Her expose about an 1892 lynching enraged locals, who burned her press and drove her from Memphis. After a few months, the threats became so bad she was forced to move to Chicago, Illinois.

In 1893, Wells-Barnett, joined other African American leaders in calling for the boycott of the World’s Columbian Exposition. The boycotters accused the exposition committee of locking out African Americans and negatively portraying the black community. In 1895, Wells-Barnett married famed African American lawyer Ferdinand Barnett. Together, the couple had four children. Throughout her career Wells-Barnett, balanced motherhood with her activism.

Wells-Barnett traveled internationally, shedding light on lynching to foreign audiences. Abroad, she openly confronted white women in the suffrage movement who ignored lynching. Because of her stance, she was often ridiculed and ostracized by women’s suffrage organizations in the United States. Nevertheless, Wells-Barnett remained active the women’s rights movement. She was a founder of the National Association of Colored Women’s Club which was created to address issues dealing with civil rights and women’s suffrage. Although she was in Niagara Falls for the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), her name is not mentioned as an official founder. Late in her career Wells-Barnett focused on urban reform in the growing city of Chicago. She died on March 25th, 1931.

By: Arlisha R. Norwood, NWHM Fellow 2017

National Women’s History Museum

The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States

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The Fusion Experience djdrfusion soulradiouk.net 19/05/2018

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70’s Disco:
Crown Heights Affair – Galaxy of love 1978
Hi Tension – Power And Lightning 1978




Jazz Fusion:
Patchworks – Summertime
Jeff Lorber – Hyperdrive 2017
Evolution – Too Much Traffic 2012
Weather Report – This is This 1985
Pat Metheny – To The End Of The World 1994
Steps Ahead – Well In That Case 1989
Avishai Cohen – How Long 2003
Spyro Gyra – Open Door 2005
1965 jazz blues:
Sammy Davis Count Basie – Shes a woman 1965
Aertha franklin – More 1965
Jimmy Smith – Mojo Got my working 1965




fusion:
Wolfgang Hoffner – Bing 2012
Billy Cobham – Africas Sounds
Chick Correa – Johnnys Landing
Soundtrack:
Young Christopher – The Suite – The Hurricane
John Barry – Dixie Kidnaps Vera – The cotton Club
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Prince:
Prince – When The Lights Go Down 1999
Prince – 1+1+1 Is 3 2001

 

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The Fusion Experience djdrfusion soulradiouk.net 19/05/2018
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Palestine Map

Palestine Map

This map shows back in 1948 that to days Israel was in fact Palestine.


Timeline – World History Documentaries
Published on Oct 4, 2017
Uncovering shocking foreign office communications and using fascinating footage never seen on television before, this documentary shows how British double-dealing during the First World War ignited the conflict between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East.

This is a story of intrigue among rival empires; of misguided strategies; and of how conflicting promises to Arabs and Jews created a legacy of bloodshed which determined the fate of the Middle East. Avi Shlaim, Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, calls it ‘one of the best historical documentaries on the Middle East I have ever seen’.


israel palestine
Former Israeli soldiers have given testimony about the gross injustices against the Palestinian.

questioning Israel

Looking in to this subject and trying to understand why there is so much conflict in this part of the world and I’ve noticed most if not all the opinions are all one sided, and to be quite honest there isn’t enough room on this page to put all the quotes down. But i do like the fate that some of the former Israeli soldiers have given testimony about the gross injustices against the Palestinian.

Jimmy Carter clearly say’s the occupation by Israel is wrong


Former Israeli soldiers have given testimony about the gross injustices against the Palestinian.




A documentary that looks at the Sabra and Shatila massacre and how the people regards Ariel Sharon as the man who authorised a genocide. Who ordered the Israeli army to surround the camps, let the Christian militias in and did nothing as they massacred thousands of innocent civilians

The Invasion of Lebanon 1982











The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the slaughter of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinian and Lebanese Shia, by a Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia in the Sabra and Shatila Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut, Lebanon.
The massacre started 6:00 pm 16 September to 8:00 am 18 September 1982.
In 1983, the Israeli Kahan Commission, appointed to investigate the incident, found that Israeli military personnel, aware that a massacre was in progress, had failed to take serious steps to stop it. Thus Israel was indirectly responsible, while Ariel Sharon, then Defense Minister, bore personal responsibility, forcing him to resign. And this very same man was elected Prime Minister in February 2001.

We live in a strange war
Massacre_of_palestinians_in_shatila



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israel palestine

Voting Act 1965


Mississippi Public Broadcasting

Poll tax (United States)
In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto or implicit pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting eligible voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites.

Southern state legislatures employed literacy tests as part of the voter registration process starting in the late 19th century.
Literacy tests, along with poll taxes and extra-legal intimidation, were used to deny suffrage to African-Americans. The first formal voter literacy tests were introduced in 1890.
At first, whites were exempted from the literacy test if they could meet alternate requirements (the grandfather clause) that, in practice, excluded blacks. The Grandfather Clause allowed an illiterate person to vote if he could show descent from someone who was eligible to vote before 1867 (when only whites could vote). Grandfather clauses were ruled unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Guinn v. United States (1915). Nevertheless, literacy tests continued to be used to disenfranchise blacks. The tests were usually administered orally by white local officials, who had complete discretion over who passed and who failed. Examples of questions asked of Blacks in Alabama included: naming all sixty-seven county judges in the state, naming the date on which Oklahoma was admitted to the Union, and declaring how many bubbles are in a bar of soap.


The Film Archives
Published on Aug 14, 2012
The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) refers to the social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968, particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power Movement, which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims of the Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from oppression by white Americans.

The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–1956) in Alabama; “sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.

Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to action.

Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools in such a manner as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.

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The Fusion Experience soulradiouk.net 04/03/18






The first hour:
Tom Browne Fungi Mama 1981

Brothers Johnson Caught Up 1981

Bob James Sign Of The times 1981

Time for a little jazz:
Abdullah Ibrahim Virgin Jungle 1981

Avishai Cohen One For Mark 2006





Chick Corea The Slide 1980

lalo schifrin The Peanut Vendor 1964

Pat Metheny Finding And Believing 1992

Joe Zawinul Faces & Place 2002

Billy Cobham Ozone

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